FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE CONTROL
LIVESTOCK TRANSPORT – VEHICLE CLEANDOWN PROCEDURES
The following is the procedure to be followed to prevent and eliminate Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) virus contamination of livestock transport vehicles. This is done to prevent mechanical transmission of FMD virus.
After transport of each load of cattle, pigs, sheep or goats.
- Remove all bedding and burn it.
- With a high-pressure hose and water, remove all urine and faeces starting from the top of the vehicle and working down. Remove and clean cab floors and mats of faeces and debris.
- Disinfect all surfaces using a knapsack sprayer containing 4% washing soda (sodium bicarbonate 40g/litre, 600g/15 litres knapsack) as well as wheels and wheel arches and mats on cab floor. Apply disinfectant liberally until fully wet. Allow to dry.
- Drivers and assistants should disinfect their boots and remove protective clothing for washing.
- Disinfected boots and clean protective clothing should be worn for collection of each and every load of animals and removed after delivery for disinfection and washing as per this clean down procedure.
- The point of delivery should have its own disinfection procedure performed after receiving animals.
PRECAUTIONS FOR SMALL SCALE FARMERS
FMD is a highly infectious disease which infects cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and certain wildlife. It causes blisters in the mouth and on the tongue as well as blisters on the skin around the hooves. This causes severe pain to animals. They do not want to eat, they dribble saliva, swallow frequently, and have sores on the skin around the top, in between and behind the hooves which makes them lame.
If you see these signs, please report them to your nearest Veterinary Department Official, Animal Health Inspector, Veterinary Livestock Technician, Veterinary Surgeon or the Police.
If you see these signs, do not allow your group of animals to mix with your neighbour’s animals, as this will spread the disease. Keep them in your kraal and give them food and water. Immediately send someone to tell the above Officials.
If you see your neighbour’s animals showing these signs, tell your neighbours to report his animals and to keep them in his kraal. Keep your animals away from his animals.
If your local Veterinary Department Official informs you that FMD is in your area, keep your animals grazing near your homestead and avoid mixing with other neighbour’s livestock if it is possible.
Cooperate with and follow instructions from Veterinary Department Officials within your area.
Bring your animals for inspection when instructed to do so by Veterinary Department Officials.
Your help and cooperation will assist the Veterinary Department to control this disease.
SELF INSPECTION PROCEDURE
This information details how livestock owners/managers can perform FMD inspections of their own livestock.
- Enter the group of collected animals whilst standing as a group and listen and observe carefully
– Listen for lip smacking and frequent swallowing
– Look for salivation and dribbling and frequent swallowing
– Look for tongue rolling and discomfort from the mouth
– Look for blisters or sores (red spots) on the muzzle.
– Look for lameness and animals not wanting to move or stand.
– Look at the skin margins above and between the hooves for blisters and sores – often flies are attracted.
– Look for cracks and signs of the hoof peeling off and coming away from the skin at the back of the hoof (slipper formation)
- Place the animals in a race and check one by one
– Look at the muzzle for blisters and sores
– Open the mouth and pull out the tongue and look for blisters or white scars where blisters are healing or have healed
– Look at the hoof margins for signs of sores or slipper formation
– Look for signs of pain when walking out the race
- If any of the above signs are present or you suspect they have recently been present, immediately contact your nearest Veterinary Department Official or the Police.
Your diligence in this exercise will assist you and the livestock industry of Zimbabwe to bring a rapid control of Foot and Mouth Disease.
ON FARM PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES
Precautions for Pig Producers
Pigs are highly susceptible to FMD and once infected, shed large amounts of virus. The objective is to remain non-infected. It is recommended that the following precautions be followed:
- Ensure pig sites are fenced in compliance with the African Swine Fever (ASF) regulations.
- Limit access of vehicles and humans onto the farm premises and especially onto pig sites
- Keep separate sets of clean boots and overalls at the pig sites for use by staff and visitors within the pig site.
- Ensure that there are disinfectant footbaths and hand rinses available on entry to pig sites.
- Install wheel baths or use a knap-sack spray with 4% solution of sodium bicarbonate (4 kg to 100 litres of water) to spray the wheels and wheel arches of all vehicles entering the farm premises.
- Stop sheep and cattle movements onto the farm premises as a precaution.
- Cattle and sheep on the farm premises should be kept away from the boundary fence to avoid contact with neighbouring livestock.
- Install a fly and rodent control programme to prevent possible mechanical spread of the virus should it be present, introduced or in the neighbourhood.
- Report any suspicious deaths of clinical signs immediately to the nearest Veterinary Department Official.
10.Ensure no swill or kitchen wastes are fed to pigs.
Clinical Signs of FMD
The sudden onset of severe lameness is the commonest finding in affected pigs, the feet of which are obviously painful. The back may be arched, reluctance to move is common and movement may be accompanied by squealing.Vesicles appear as raised white areas, 0.5 to 1.0 cm in diameter, on the surface of the tongue and on the snout, which may rupture and leave small ulcers.
Frothy saliva may be present and vesicles develop on the coronet in the inter-digital space and around the dewclaws. When they rupture, they cause ‘thimbling’ as the damaged hoof is shed. Animals with loss of hooves or acute lameness should be killed humanely.
Fever (up to 41 °C) accompanies the earliest stages of the disease.
Affected animals are depressed, refuse food and loose condition. Mortality rarely exceeds 5% in piglets in which sudden death may occur before the vesicles have developed in either the piglets of sows.
ON FARM PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES
FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE
Precautions for Beef and Dairy Producers.The following precautions should be followed to minimize the risk of FMD infection:
- Move cattle, sheep and goats away from boundary fences to minimize contact with neighbouring, possibly infected livestock.
- Minimize farm visitors.
- Stop farm trespass of humans and animals.
- Avoid visiting high-risk areas such as other farms with livestock, abattoirs or sale pens.
- Try and establish a single entry point to the property and control the entry of humans and vehicles.
- All vehicles entering the farm must have the wheels and wheel arches sprayed with a 4% solution of sodium bicarbonate (washing soda: 4 kg in 100 litres of water)
- Livestock transport vehicles should not enter the farm unless fully disinfected after their previous load.
- Inspect animals for symptoms of FMD – see Foot and Mouth Disease Self Inspection Procedure.
CHIZIVISO KWAMURI VAPFUWI VEMOMBE, VATENGI PAMWE NEVATENGES VEMOMBE
CHII CHINONZI CHIRWERE CHEMAHWANDA?
Chirwere ichi chirwere chino tapurirwana nenzira dzakareruka uye chinonyanya kubatiwa kuzvipfuwo zvine mahwanda. Chinoonekwa nokuita zvironda kwezvipfuyo mumuromo, mumahwanda pamwe nepamazamu.
CHIRWERE ICHI CHINOBVA KUPI?
Chinobva mukutapurirwa kwezvipfuyo nemhuka dzesango dzakaita senyati kana kutakutapurirana pachezvazvo zvipfuyo hunge pane chipfuyo chave nechirwere ichi, kusanganisira chikafu pamwe nemidziyo yebasa yakaita semotokari.
MHEDZISIRO YECHIRWERE CHAMAHWANDA
Zvipfuyo zvino kundikana kuvane pundutso, kunyanya mombe dzomukaka, nguruve pamwe nemombe dzino pfuyirwa nyama.
Kurasikirwa nemari zhinji kwevapfuwi, bato rezvifuyo rehurumende pamwe nehurumende yacho.
ZVANDINOTARISIRWA SEMUPFUWI, MUTENGI PAMWE NEMUTENGESI WEMOMBE.
- Kumhan’ara kumapurisa kana mahofisi enyanzvi dzezvipfuyo (vadhumeni) kana paonekwa mombe ine chirwere ichi.
- Kumhan’ara kumahofisi enyanzvi dzezvipfuyo kana mhuka dzesango senyati dzikaonekwa kunze kwenzvimbo dzemasango dzino chengetedzwa (national parks)
- Kuva nechokwadi pakunyoresa zvipfuyo mumagwaro akafanira
- Zvipfuyo zvino tenderwa kufamba zviri pamutemo pamwe nemagwaro emutemo mushure mekuvhenekwa kwezvipfuyo nemapurisa pamwe nenyanzvi dzezvipfuyo (vadhumeni)
- Zvipfuyo zvose zviri munzvimbo ine chirwere dzino fanira kuvhenekwa nenyanzvi kuti zvigo tenderwa kupiwa magwaro eku fambisa.
- Zvipfuyo (mombe) zvisa takurwa usiku nengoro dzemoto
- Zvipfuyo (mombe) zvisa fudziwa usiku
- Zvipfuyo zvose zvaka nangana nokuuraiwa zvipisirwe vara rinoti “S”
TOSE TIKABATANA PAKURWISA CHIRWERE ICHI TINOKUNDA.
ISIXWAYISO KUBALIMI, ABATHENGI, LABATHENGISI BENKOMO
KUYINI UMKHUHLANE OHLASELA AMASONDO LOMLOMO WENKOMO (FMD)
Umkhuhlane ohlasela amasondo lomlomo ngumkhuhlane othelelwanwayo kakhulu njalo uhlasela izifuyo zonke ezilenhlagu (cloven hoofed).
Umkhuhlane lo ubonakala ngezilonda emlonyeni, emasondweni, lasemabeleni ezifuyo.
UVELA NGAPHI UMKHUHLANE LO
Esikhathini esinengi umkhuhlane lo uthwalwa zinyathi, inkomo ezike zahlaselwa, ukudla kwezifuyo okwenziwe ngento ezihlaseliweyo, impahla yokusebenzisa kanye lezimota.
IMPUMELA YOMKHUHLANE we FMD
- Ukusilela kwengqubekela phambili kwezifuyo, ikakhulu inkomo zochago, ingulube, lazo inkomo zenyama.
- Ukusilela kwemali kubalimi bezifuyo, kwabasebenza ngezifuyo kanye loHulumende.
UMLIMI LOBA UMATHENGA ETHENGISA IZIFUYO, KUMELE ANANZELELE LOKHU.
- Xwayisa abe Veterinary kumbe amapholisa aseduze lawe ungabona isifuyo esigulayo.
- Xwayisa abe Veterinary ungabona Inyathi ngaphandle kwe national parks.
- Hambisa inkomo zakho ngokusemthethweni, usuthole Iphemithi, lemvumo emapholiseni, uzise endaweni elotshwe kuphemithi kuphela.
- Bhalasa inkomo zonke ekhadini lase bhukwini (stock card/ register).
- Inkomo zonke kumele ziqale zihlolisiswe ngum Veterinary zingakaphiwa Iphemithi.
- Lingakhwezi inkomo ezimoteni ebusuku.
- Lingaqhubi inkomo ebusuku.
- Inkomo zonke eziyabulawa zisuka endaweni ezilokhuhlane we (FMD) kumele zifakwe umtshiso u “S”.